Not even/not so much as: 조차

N + 조차 is a kind of emphasis similar in meaning to , but it is used only in negative situations to say ‘(not) even N’ or ‘not so much as N’:

거기에 살기는커녕 여행조차 하고 싶지 않아요.

I don’t even want to visit there, let alone live there.

베트남의 여름 날씨가 무더울 거라고는 생각조차 못 했어요.

I never even imagined that Vietnam could be so swelteringly hot in the summer.

친구가 시험 준비할 생각조차 못 하는데 어떻게 합격하나요?

My friend isn’t even thinking about preparing for the exam, so how can he pass?

프랑스어를 배웠는데 지금은 숫자조차 생각나지 않아요.

I used to learn French but now I can’t even remember the numbers.

방에 들어왔을 때 그 남자는 저에게 인사조차 할 수 없었어요.

When he entered the room the guy didn’t so much as greet me.

많은 팝 가수들은 가사조차 직접 만들지 않아요.

Lots of pop stars don’t even write the lyrics to their songs themselves.

지각해서 샤워할 시간조차 없어요.

I was late for school so I didn’t even have time to take a shower.

그 남자의 이름조차 몰라요.

I don’t even know his name.

아이는커녕 애완 동물조차 키우고 싶지 않아요.

I don’t even want to look after pets, let alone children.

집에 TV가 있는데 너무 바빠서 TV를 켜는 방법조차 잊어버렸어요.

There’s a TV in my house but I’m so busy I’ve even forgotten how to turn it on.

친구가 헬스장에 다니면서 근육을 너무 많이 만들어서 요즘 저조차 못 알아봐요.

While my friend went to the gym he got really muscular so these days I can’t even recognise him.

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