Simultaneous & Alternate Actions In Korean (...기도 하고 ...기도하다)

In Korean grammar, …기도 하고 …기도하다 is a versatile structure.

It’s used to express two actions or states that either occur simultaneously or alternately.

Essentially, it can convey the idea of “both X and Y” or “sometimes X and sometimes Y”, contingent on the context.

Grammar Rule: For simultaneous actions, use …기도 하고 …기도하다 to indicate “both X and Y”.

For alternate actions, the same structure means “sometimes X and sometimes Y”.

Examples of simultaneous actions

다른 나라로 이사하는 것에 대해 생각할 때, 행복하기도 하고 슬프기도 해요.
When I think about moving to a new country I'm both happy and sad.
아기가 재채기를 하기도 하고 하품을 하기도 했어요.
The baby sneezed and yawned at the same time.
이 식사가 가벼우기도 하고 배부르기도 해요.
This meal is both light and filling.
오늘 짐들을 싸기도 하고 운동을 하기도 했어요.
Today I packed my suitcases and did some exercise too.
라면은 저렴하기도하고 쉽게 준비할 수 있기도 해요.
Ramen is inexpensive and easy to prepare.
준영이는 똑똑하기도 하고 근육이 많기도 해요.
Jun Yeong is smart and muscular too.

Examples of alternate actions

다른 나라로 이사하는 것에 대해 생각할 때, 행복하기도 하고 슬프기도 해요.
When I think about moving to a new country sometimes I'm happy about it and sometimes I'm sad.
초등학생 때 머리를 빗고 다니기도 하고 모자를 쓰기도 했어요.
When I was a primary school student sometimes I combed my hair and sometimes I wore a cap.
대학교까지 버스를 타기도 하고 자전거를 타기도 해요.
Sometimes I catch the bus to university and sometimes I cycle.
어렸을 때 인형을 가지고 놀기도 하고 레고를 가지고 놀기도 했어요.
When I was young, sometimes I played with dolls and sometimes I played with Lego.
신선한 과일이나 야채은 시장에서 싸기도 하고 대형마트에서 싸기도 해요.
Sometimes I buy fresh fruit and vegetables from the market and sometimes from the supermarket.


The structure …기도 하고 …기도하다 in Korean serves as a powerful tool to describe simultaneous or alternate states and actions.

By mastering this structure, learners can convey a broader range of emotions and situations in their conversations.

Practice using these patterns in your sentences to achieve a more natural flow in your Korean conversations.

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