Simultaneous & Alternate Actions In Korean (...기도 하고 ...기도하다)
In Korean grammar, …기도 하고 …기도하다 is a versatile structure.
It’s used to express two actions or states that either occur simultaneously or alternately.
Essentially, it can convey the idea of “both X and Y” or “sometimes X and sometimes Y”, contingent on the context.
Grammar Rule: For simultaneous actions, use …기도 하고 …기도하다 to indicate “both X and Y”.
For alternate actions, the same structure means “sometimes X and sometimes Y”.
Examples of simultaneous actions
When I think about moving to a new country I'm both happy and sad.
The baby sneezed and yawned at the same time.
This meal is both light and filling.
Today I packed my suitcases and did some exercise too.
Ramen is inexpensive and easy to prepare.
Jun Yeong is smart and muscular too.
Examples of alternate actions
When I think about moving to a new country sometimes I'm happy about it and sometimes I'm sad.
When I was a primary school student sometimes I combed my hair and sometimes I wore a cap.
Sometimes I catch the bus to university and sometimes I cycle.
When I was young, sometimes I played with dolls and sometimes I played with Lego.
Sometimes I buy fresh fruit and vegetables from the market and sometimes from the supermarket.
The structure …기도 하고 …기도하다 in Korean serves as a powerful tool to describe simultaneous or alternate states and actions.
By mastering this structure, learners can convey a broader range of emotions and situations in their conversations.
Practice using these patterns in your sentences to achieve a more natural flow in your Korean conversations.